DATE : Vendredi 15 décembre à 11h salle 120 du 11E
Laboratoire: Post-doctorante département MM, IPR;
Résumé: The wide use of heterogeneous materials requires understanding of their deformation both for the fundamental knowledge of their mechanical behavior and for engineering applications. The disordered structure of these systems causes nonuniform stress propagation leading to a deviation from the affine character of deformations even in the reversible elastic regime. Emergence of non-affine zones and subsequent intermittent structural rearrangements determine the mechanical response of amorphous materials. The development of non-affine deformations in heterogenous systems has been demonstrated in numerous simulations, however only few works studied it experimentally. We have designed an experiment based on the diffusive wave spectroscopy (DWS) that allows one to compensate the affine part of the applied deformation and reveal the deviation from the linear response. The results on the thermal expansion of a granular material will be presented.
DATE : Vendredi 8 décembre a 11h salle 120 du 11E:
Intervenant: Adrien BUSSONNIERE
Laboratoire: Post-doctorant département MM, IPR (début d’activité : décembre 2017)
Date et lieu: Vendredi 17 novembre, 11h, bât. 11E, salle 120
Intervenant: Stéphanie Deboeuf
(par ailleurs et pour rappel, Stéphanie Deboeuf est membre du jury de soutenance de these de Thai Binh Nguyen qui aura lieu la veille, 16/11 à 14h, amphithéâtre N, Bat 42)
Laboratoire: Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, Paris
Résumé: Granular material flowing on complex topographies are ubiquitous in industrial and geophysical situations (food-processing industry, civil engineering, rock avalanches, …). Even model granular flows are difficult to understand and predict. Recently, the frictional rheology mu(I) — describing the ratio of the shear stress to the normal stress as a function of the inertia number I that compares inertial and confinement effects — allows unifying different configurations of granular flows [GDR MiDi 2004]. However, it does not succeed in
describing some phenomenologies: creep flow, deposit height, … Is it attributable to the rheology, to non-local effects, to the choice of the function mu(I), …? To study these questions, our general approach is to compare experimental results, numerical simulations and analytical solutions. In this talk, I will present some experiments of a granular layer flowing on a slope (in 3D, in 2D,…) and I will focus on the front of the flow [Saingier et al 2016] and on its stopping dynamics. Comparisons are made with computations of St-Venant equations (depth-averaged mass and momentum equations) of the same configuration for a fluid of rheology mu(I).
DATE : Vendredi 6 octobre 2017 – 11h00
Salle 050 Bat 11B
Intervenant : Angelo Pommella, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, Université de Montpellier
Structural changes and rupture phenomena are ubiquitous in soft matter systems under stress, beingoften related and central to determine the final properties of medical, food, and personal care products. Indeed, some bio-applications deal with soft objects (e.g. vesicles) under flow while othersrequire specific supports (bio-gels) in static stressed conditions. In both cases, the dynamics and the rupture strongly depend on the time-dependent evolution of the internal structure. In this talk, I will present three studies aiming to elucidate some key mechanisms of the dynamics and rupture of
vesicles and bio-gels under different stress conditions. In the first part of the talk, I will focus on multilamellar vesicles. Giant vesicles (typical diameter 10 – 100 microns) are usually generated by the folding of a lamellar phase made of amphiphilic molecules and can be either unilamellar (made of a single bilayer) or multilamellar (made of a stack of bilayers). Their collective behaviour has been studied extensively but experimental results on the flow behaviour of individual multilamellar ve- sicles are lacking. We used a simple shear flow to investigate the dynamic behaviour of multilamellar
vesicles. We compared the results with the well-known dynamics of unilamellar vesicles and emulsion droplets finding surprisingly analogies with both systems. We explained these analogies analysing the evolution of the vesicle microstructure under flow. In the second part of the talk I will present a study on unilamellar vesicles. While the flow-induced dynamics upon small deformation of giant vesicles is well-known, the behaviour upon large deformation, such that unilamellar vesicles break, has rarely been studied for the case of flow-induced deformation. We investigated how break-up of unilamellar vesicles is affected by the mechanical properties of vesicle membranes under flow. We
used an acoustic microstreaming flow, a complex flow generated by an ultrasound-driven bubble, to probe the effect of the excess area and the area stretching modulus. We demonstrated that selective break-up based only on the mechanical properties of different vesicle populations can be achieved opening the way to vesicle sorting mechanism under flow. In the last part of the talk, I will show an investigation on the failure of agarose gels. So far, many studies approached the failure of soft systems from a macroscopic point of view while, very few focussed on the microscopic structure and, usually, only after failure takes place. We investigated the time-evolution of the dynamics of the gel microstructure when a constant stress is imposed to the gel leading to the material failure. We used a novel experimental setup combining rheology and dynamic light scattering. The results show the presence of a heterogeneous dynamic activity in the gel microstructure predicting the imminent failure. These dynamic events are not present in the rheological macroscopic behaviour.